The Intervention Toolkit

Every educator needs a readily available "bag of tricks" or "intervention toolkit," a body of intervention and assessment programs and strategies available to teachers and intervention specialists. Not every tool will work with every child, so intervention specialists and teachers must be familiar with many tools in order to choose the right tools for each child at the right time, adapt tools as needed, determine how a given tool is working, and decide when to turn to another tool in the toolkit.

Click on the links below to read about assessment and intervention tools.

Teachscape Modules
> Instructional Module: Voyager Passport
> Instructional Module: Great Leaps
> Instructional Module: The Wilson Reading Program
> Instructional Module: Fletcher's Place
> Instructional Module: The Developmental Reading Assessment
> Instructional Module: REWARDS Program
> Instructional Module: Reading Reform Program
> Instructional Module: Reading Rescue
Assessment Tools
v Phonemic Awareness
v Decoding/Word Reading Accuracy and Fluency
v Comprehension
Intervention Tools
v Phonemic Awareness Skill Development
v Software to Support Phonemic Decoding Skill Development
v Decoding Skill Development (Orton-Gillingham Sequence)
v Software to Reinforce Decoding Skills
v Fluency Building Programs
v Software for Building Fluency
v Reading Comprehension Skill Development
v Software for Comprehension Strategies

Phonemic Awareness

Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum
Marilyn Jager Adams, Barbara R. Foorman, Ingvar Lundberg, and Terri Beeler This book offers a range of short activities (15–20 minutes) designed to improve phonemic awareness for students in grades pre-k–1 and a screening measure which not only provides an overall estimate of the general skill level of the entire class and identifies specific students who may need additional testing, but also serves as a way to offer ongoing assessment of student progress. (Assessment and Intervention) Available from: P. Brookes Publishing Co.

Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP)
Richard Wagner, Joseph Torgesen, and Carol Rashotte This is a useful assessment of phonological strengths and weaknesses (phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming skills). CTOPP can help intervention specialists determine which youngsters lack critical phonological abilities; identify the phonological strengths and weaknesses of individual students; and provide a way to document individual progress in phonological processing. Available from: AGS Publishing

Decoding/Word Reading Accuracy and Fluency

Gallistel-Ellis Test of Coding Skills The Gallistel-Ellis is a quick phonetic assessment that focuses on decoding and encoding. Available from: Montage Press
19 West Point Road
Branford, CT 06405

Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE)
Joseph Torgesen, Richard Wagner, and Carol Rashotte TOWRE assesses students' abilities to read real words and non-words in isolation, both accurately and fluently. This test is used nationally to assess children's ability to recognize words in their entirety and to sound out words quickly. Available from: PRO-ED, Inc.
8700 Shoal Creek Boulevard
Austin, TX 78757-6897

Quick Reading Test (QRT) QRT is a quick, one-on-one, computer-based assessment that can be used to assess a student's decoding skills and ability to use word attack strategies and determine automaticity with sight words. The test, which takes 5–8 minutes, reports strengths and weaknesses in both graphic and table forms to identify specific areas in which the individual or the whole group may need additional practice. Available from: Lexia Learning Systems, Inc.
2 Lincoln Street
PO Box 466
Lincoln, MA 01773


Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA)
Joetta Beaver Available in English and Spanish, the DRA is a literature-based assessment that helps teachers analyze student performance, set student-specific instructional goals, match students to appropriate books, and document progress. The assessment is available for grades K–3 and 4–8. Available from: Pearson Learning Group
135 South Mount Zion Road
PO Box 2500
Lebanon, IN 46052

Qualitative Reading Inventory - 3rd edition
Lauren Leslie and JoAnne Caldwell This informal reading inventory (PP through high school) uses word lists, narrative and expository reading passages, and questions designed to determine prior knowledge to focus assessment on word identification, fluency, and comprehension. QRI offers suggestions for intervention instruction and strategic reading. Available from: Allyn & Bacon/Longman (Pearson Education)
One Lake Street
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Comprehensive Reading Test This computer-based instrument is designed to identify students' strengths and weaknesses in phonemic awareness, decoding, sight vocabulary, comprehension, and retention. Administered one-on-one with students, the assessment offers teachers the information they need to plan lessons, develop their curriculum, and monitor progress relative to student, class, and school performance. Available from: Lexia Learning Systems, Inc.
2 Lincoln Street
PO Box 466
Lincoln, MA 01773

Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test - 4th edition
Walter H. MacGinitie, Ruth K. MacGinitie, Katherine Maria, and Lois G. Dreyer Designed for whole-class assessments, this norm-referenced test assesses word decoding, word knowledge, and comprehension on the second grade level. The information provided helps teachers determine instructional groupings, target instruction, and assess the impact of interventions. Available from: Riverside Publishing
425 Spring Lake Drive
Itasca, IL 60143-2079


Phonemic Awareness Skill Development

Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum
Marilyn Jager Adams, Barbara R. Foorman, Ingvar Lundberg, and Terri Beeler This book offers a range of activities to help children develop phonemic awareness. The games and activities build the skills children need to use their phonemic awareness to understand how the alphabetic principle works. All activities are designed to take 15–20 minutes. Available from: P. Brookes Publishing Co.

Road to the Code
Benita A. Blachman, Eileen Wynne Ball, Rochella Black, and Darlene M. Tangel This is an 11-week program for teaching phonemic awareness and letter/sound correspondence to kindergarten and first grade students who are struggling with literacy skills. Each of the 44 lessons is designed for individuals or small groups, and takes 15–20 minutes to present. Available from: P. Brookes Publishing Co.

Ladders to Literacy: A Kindergarten Activity Book
Rollanda E. O'Connor, Angela Notari-Syverson, and Patricia F. Vadasy This supplemental curriculum provides large-group skill-building activities designed to prevent reading failure. These activities emphasize three categories of skills that have been found to correlate well with reading success: print awareness, meta-linguistic, and oral language skills. Available from: P. Brookes Publishing Co.

Software to Support Phonemic Decoding Skill Development

Earobics Step 1 (4–7 years old and Adolescent/Adult version); Step 2 (7–10 years old) Earobics Steps 1 and 2 offer integrated multimedia tools and books to build the foundational skills students need to become strong readers by providing instruction and practice in areas ranging from phonemic awareness to beginning reading and beginning writing. The software offers interactive games on multiple levels, provides immediate feedback to the students, charts their progress, and provides positive rewards. The classroom versions of Step 1 and Step 2 provide game instructions in multiple languages. Available from: Cognitive Concepts, Inc.
900 Grove Street
Evanston, IL 60201

Lexia Early Reading Software Level 1 of the Lexia Early Reading Software provides children ages 4–6 with phonemic awareness practice: rhyming, initial and final consonant sounds, word segmenting, and blending. Level 2 develops letter knowledge, letter/sound correspondence, and beginning and ending sounds, including blends. Available from: Lexia Learning Systems, Inc.
2 Lincoln Street
PO Box 466
Lincoln, MA 01773

Decoding Skill Development (Orton-Gillingham Sequence)

Recipe for Reading
Nina Traub, Frances Bloom, et al. Based on the Orton-Gillingham method, this decoding program teaches and reinforces phonics by addressing consonant sounds, digraphs, consonant blends, diphthongs, spelling rules, short vowels, long vowels, inflectional endings, and suffixes, primarily for grades K–3. Available from: Educators Publishing Service
PO Box 9031
Cambridge, MA 02139-9031

REWARDS System (Reading Excellence: Word Attack and Rate Development Strategies)
Anita Archer, Mary Fleason, and Vicky Vachon A multisyllabic word reading program, REWARDS helps students in grades 4+ decode long words, improve their fluency, and increase their comprehension as fluency and accuracy improve. Available from: Sopris West
4093 Specialty Place
Longmont, CO 80504

Spector Phonics: A Guide to the Multisensory Reading Program
Leona D. Spector Spector Phonics provides step-by-step instruction in multisensory phonics. This book offers teachers a wide range of activities to use to reinforce decoding skills. Available from: Leona D. Spector, publisher
445 East 14th Street
New York, NY 10009

Wilson Reading System (best for Grades 3+; use Fundations for K–2)
Barbara A. Wilson The Wilson Reading System is designed to help students who show gaps in their encoding and decoding skills become fluent and accurate readers by directly teaching decoding and encoding in a structured, sequential way, while continuously addressing fluency and comprehension. Sound, word, and syllable cards are used throughout the Wilson reading process. Fundations utilizes the same strategies as the Wilson Reading System but is designed specifically for younger children (K–2). Available from: Wilson Language
175 West Main Street
Millbury, MA 01527

Moose Materials Based on the Orton-Gillingham approach, the Moose materials are card games that can be used to reinforce phonetic elements from simple c-v-c words through multisyllable words. Available from: Downtown Press
3051 Washington Boulevard
Baltimore, MD 21230

Preventing Academic Failure
Phyllis Berman and Eileen Perlman Reflecting the Orton-Gillingham philosophy, this multisensory curriculum provides a 4-year sequence of skills for students in grades K–3 that are designed to develop written language, reading, spelling, and handwriting. The lessons are coordinated with the Ready to Read and Stepping Up books and with eight Merrill Readers developed for the program. Available from: Educators Publishing Service
PO Box 9031
Cambridge, MA 02139-9031

Software to Reinforce Decoding Skills

Lexia Phonics Based Reading (ages 5–8); Reading S.O.S. (ages 9–adult) Phonics Based Reading offers activities for practice in phonemic awareness, sound-symbol correspondence, word attack skills, and early comprehension skills. Vocabulary development is emphasized. Reading S.O.S. helps older students develop competency and fluency in decoding skills and comprehension skills. Spanish and English versions are available for both. Available from: Lexia Learning Systems, Inc.
2 Lincoln Street
PO Box 466
Lincoln, MA 01773

Read, Write and Type Learning System Read, Write and Type provides systematic, explicit, multisensory instruction in basic phonological skills and emphasizes writing as a route to reading. The program is designed for students in grades K–3, but can be used with older students who need basic decoding skills. The system includes an assessment CD, program CD, and phonetically controlled set of readers. Available from: Talking Fingers, Inc.
One St. Vincent Drive
San Rafael, CA 94903

Fluency Building Programs

Concept Phonics Fluency Building Program
Phyllis Fischer The Reading Fluency set includes word drills, worksheets, contrast cards, and word lists that help students to develop automaticity at responding to whole words and the orthographic units that make up words. Word drills available in both standard sequence and Orton-Gillingham sequence. Available from: Oxton House Publishers
P.O. Box 209
Farmington, ME 04938

Great Leaps Reading - The Fluency Program
Ken Campbell Great Leaps is a one-to-one reading intervention which can be used effectively by teachers, paraprofessionals, or school volunteers after minimal training. The Fluency Program builds phonics and word/phrase reading skills so students can be successful reading age-appropriate stories. Available from: Diarmuid, Inc.
P.O. Box 357580
Gainesville, FL 32635

The Six Minute Solution: A Reading Fluency Program
Gail N. Adams and Sheron Brown This approach incorporates both repeated reading and peer-assisted learning to build reading fluency, automatic word recognition, and comprehension skills. Students in grades 3–8 team with peers for 6 minutes daily to read timed word lists and content-area passages that are written at reading levels 1–8. Available from: Sopris West
4093 Specialty Place
Longmont, CO 80504

Software for Building Fluency

Read Naturally Read Naturally offers nonfiction stories on 13 sequenced reading levels. In addition to the story masters, each level includes a teacher's manual and either CDs or cassette tapes of the stories. Spanish version cassettes are also available. Available from: Read Naturally
750 South Plaza Drive #100
Saint Paul, MN 55120

Soliloquy Reading Assistant Soliloquy is a computer-based program that improves fluency supporting oral reading practice, with guidance and feedback, through a state-of-the art speech recognition system. The software tracks progress, diagnoses student difficulties, and helps teachers adjust the program to each student's needs. Available from: Soliloquy Learning
144 Gould Street, Suite 202
Needham Heights, MA 02494

Reading Comprehension Skill Development

From Clunk to Click: Collaborative Strategic Reading
Janette K. Klinger, Sharon Vaughn, Joseph Diminio, Jeanne S. Schumm, and Diane Bryant Designed for grades 3–6 and for remediation in grades 7–12, this resource builds upon cooperative learning and reciprocal teaching tactics to offer specific strategies for improving comprehension skills. Available from: Sopris West
4093 Specialty Place
Longmont, CO 80504

Software for Comprehension Strategies

Brain Cogs (Grades 5+) Brain Cogs acts as a personal interactive coach to help students develop personalized strategies for learning and studying. Based on research from the Institute for Learning and Development (ILD) and Research ILD, the computer-based program helps students develop organizing, remembering, prioritizing, shifting, and checking skills. Available from: FableVision, Inc.
44 Pleasant Street
Watertown, MA 02472